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General Analysis of Automotive Wiring Harness

With the continuous improvement of people's living standards, cars have increasingly become an indispensable tool in people's production and life. When people choose cars, they often focus on the safety, practicability and fuel consumption of cars. etc. as the primary consideration. In order to better meet the needs of people with the above functions, the design of electrical systems has become the focus of modern automobile research and development and design. The key position has become the most critical link that affects the normal operation of the overall power system of the vehicle. Reliability, as an important quality standard for measuring products at present, has been paid more and more attention by various engineering and technical fields, especially for the automotive wiring harness system, which has thousands of components and several kilometers of wires, and the reliability of each component directly determines whether the whole system can work reliably, so the reliability requirements must be reflected in the design, manufacture, transportation and use.

1. The concept of automotive wiring harness

The so-called automotive wiring harness is a collection of wires that connect the power supply and wires of each part of the car according to the structure and circuit design of each part of the car. It is essentially a circuit network. If there is no wiring harness in the car, the various parts and structures inside the car are just one by one stand-alone device. Since the main function of the wire harness is to conduct electricity, the material of the wire harness is usually made of copper. The copper material is made into a contactor and crimped with the cable. After wrapping and bundling it with a metal shell, it can be used to connect various components of equipment. Wiring harnesses are not only used in modern equipment such as kitchen and bathroom appliances and computers, but are also widely used in automotive wiring harnesses. The difference is that the wiring harness in automobiles is multi-core soft copper wire, while the wiring harness in general household appliances is single-core hard wire. Due to the particularity of the automobile industry and the complexity of the structure of the automobile itself, it is required that the automotive wiring harness should be made of softer copper wire.

2. Specifications and functions of automotive wiring harnesses

For the wiring harness specifications of automobiles, we usually use the nominal cross-sectional area of the wires to define the specifications. The commonly used specifications range from 0.35mm2 to 16.0mm2. For example, electrical appliances with low power consumption such as indicator lights usually use 0.5mm2 wires, while the battery grounding wire is often used in the specification of 16mm2. Since the wiring harness in the car is equivalent to the nerves and blood vessels in the human brain, it plays the role of transmitting signals. In addition, the rapid development of the modern automobile industry has led to more and more electronic and electrical components in the car, and the corresponding wiring harness is also becoming more and more dense. Once If there is a problem, it is bound to be difficult to repair.

3. Principles and processes of automotive wiring harness design

In automotive circuit design, certain principles must be followed. When selecting wires, you should choose wires that match the color to avoid misidentification. At the same time, it is necessary to select an appropriate cross-sectional area, and on this basis, the wires are required to be connected in the shortest way, and the wires are installed on both sides of the connector to carry out the overall automotive wiring harness design. This is the basic principle of harness design.

On the basis of following the relevant basic principles, the basic design of the automotive wiring harness is carried out. The basic process is as follows: first determine the electrical performance of the overall vehicle, after familiarization, draw the electrical schematic diagram, and design the automotive wiring harness in the schematic diagram. When designing the automotive wiring harness, attention should be paid to the selection of wires, terminals and connectors. After the automotive wiring harness is roughly designed, the reliability inspection and test of the automobile are carried out. If the inspection is qualified, the automotive wiring harness will be further drawn, and then the automotive wiring harness process design will be carried out according to the automotive wiring harness drawing, and further put into the production of the automotive wiring harness. If the inspection fails, the automotive wiring harness must be redesigned, and further reliability inspections and tests are carried out after the design is completed.

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